[Assessment 1242] Added problems with Generation 1.5

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John john.r.warrior at cox.net
Sun Feb 10 15:40:16 EST 2008

-----Original Message-----
From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov [mailto:assessment-bounces at nifl.gov] On
Behalf Of assessment-request at nifl.gov
Sent: Saturday, February 09, 2008 11:00 AM
To: assessment at nifl.gov
Subject: Assessment Digest, Vol 29, Issue 77

[john.r.warrior at cox.net]

Hello everyone,

I saw the postings refereeing to Generation 1.5 students and I felt I should
share some of my experiences. In addition to the lack of motivation, there
is a strong emotional side that affects many of these students. I'll share a
little about two of my student when I teaching at the local community
college, they seem to typify characteristics of the whole group.

The first student graduated from the local high school. She had a "B"
average and was quite smart. However, when she found out that she was
unable to move into regular classes due to her lack of reading and writing
skills, she became depressed. Several weeks into the semester, our
conversation after class started with her asking me, "What good is a high
school diploma anyway?" I can't tell you how this made me feel.

The approach that other faculty members and I used with her over the next
two semesters was to acknowledge her existing knowledge and skills, while
adding equipping her with new English language skills. We also made sure
that we tied everything into her goal of becoming a nurse. She graduated
from our program and entered into regular classes where she is doing quite

Though her problem was related to gaps in her English skills, she had many
of the same frustrations, which seem to accompany college graduates and
professional students trying to resume their careers in the US.

My next student did not fare quite as well. However, in addition to similar
factors with her education she had an additional dimension. This was the
fact that she was of Indian decent, but had been born in Panama. She was
very frustrated socially be the time she came to us because she looked
Indian but couldn't speak any of the Indian languages to communicate with
the other Indian students, so she felt she was missing this cultural
connection. This was enhanced because many of the Spanish students did not
accept her. She confided in me that this had been going on since her and her
family immigrated to the US when she was ten. This isolation left her empty
and detached. When she struggled with an element of the lesson, she looked
at it as being another part of her that was isolated. She lingered in our
program until she asked for permission to go into the adult education
classes. After a year there, she was wanting to come back.

I wish this was the exception, but it is not. In our county, nearly 70% of
the students classified as English language Learners do not pass their High
School, End of Instruction Test. Each of these students has a complex
history of social and emotional issues, which have to be addressed in order
to ensure that they are able to achieve their academic goals. I am not
saying we should be councilors, but as Instructors, we should take the time
to learn about who our students are and maintain an awareness of each
students emotional strength as well as their academic strength.

John Warrior
The University of Tulsa
Tulsa, Oklahoma

[john.r.warrior at cox.net]
assessment at nifl.gov

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Today's Topics:

1. [Assessment 1226] Re: (no subject) (Forrest Chisman)
2. [Assessment 1227] Re: Multiple Intelligences and
Differentiated Instruction--registration opens (Forrest Chisman)


Message: 1
Date: Fri, 8 Feb 2008 22:30:48 -0500
From: "Forrest Chisman" <forrest at crosslink.net>
Subject: [Assessment 1226] Re: (no subject)
To: "'The Assessment Discussion List'" <assessment at nifl.gov>
Message-ID: <001e01c86acc$2c657b60$85307220$@net>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

I think that it's almost entirely a matter of resources, Both the feds and
the states are willing to pay for student contact hours, but not much to
help improve the skills teachers bring to the "contact." Ultimately, this is
a policy/budgetary issue at the highest levels, I think. And the ESL field
as well as others will have to organize themselves to fight for it in the
corridors of power.


-----Original Message-----
From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov [mailto:assessment-bounces at nifl.gov] On
Behalf Of valerie.woodard
Sent: Friday, February 08, 2008 6:30 PM
To: The Assessment Discussion List
Subject: [Assessment 1218] Re: (no subject)

I would love to hear from the group about "professional development"
challenges you face. How do we in-part learning theory to part-time staff
with degrees but no educational back ground. How do we tap into the
importance of training and have staff identify with continuing professional
development. It seems to me that it would be of benefit to look at the
experience of the Adult Education instructors and requirement from the
federal grant but local authority can make up a large part of the
requirement they have adopted which does not put professional development up
front? Resources are needed to help instructors stay sharp for the

Valerie Y. Woodard, MA
Program Director
Research, Evaluation & Staff Development
Community & Adult Education
Houston Community College
3100 Main St, Rm BD07E
Houston, Texas 77002

713-718-5363 Office
713718-5377 Fax

http://www.hccs.ed/adulted.mov <http://www.hccs.ed/adulteEd.mov>


From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov on behalf of Forrest Chisman
Sent: Fri 2/8/2008 3:49 PM
To: 'The Assessment Discussion List'
Subject: [Assessment 1207] Re: (no subject)


I think that's a fantastic conceptualization. As you know, I am not
well-versed in learning theory, but I can't help believing that these kinds
of ideas would be invaluable to teachers. I would love to hear from the
group whether they think most of their teachers are "up on" these kinds of
insights from learning theory and apply them. Or is this part of the
"professional development" challenge we face. It seems to me that it would
be tragic if we don't have the resources to help teachers tap into as much
of this as there is.


From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov [mailto:assessment-bounces at nifl.gov] On
Behalf Of Jodi Crandall
Sent: Friday, February 08, 2008 11:40 AM
To: The Assessment Discussion List
Subject: [Assessment 1184] Re: (no subject)


Are many of your students what we now refer to as generation 1.5 students?
They have had much or most of their education in this country, but may still
need extensive help with academic English, especially in writing?

If so, are there any special things that you have tried to help this

Do you also have international students?

Joy Reid has written extensively about "ear" learners (generation 1.5
learners would likely be here) and "eye" learners and how their needs are so
different. Ear learners are those who were immersed in an English-speaking
environment and have learned their English orally. As you suggest, they
have strong Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills or social language, but
may not have developed the academic language required for success in the
community college. Eye learners are just the opposite: they have learned
English through books and lack the fluency of ear learners, but are more
likely to have more standard English While these two groups share some
common needs, they are also very different in others. It's a real
challenge. Getting these ear learners prepared for the college is something
that lots of people are talking and writing about.

There is also the problem with the first group that they speak English and
often are offended when told they need more English, especially when it's

In effect you are teaching only credit ESL, is that right? Are there
linkages with any of the programs in the community that are teaching lower
level ESL?


On Feb 8, 2008, at 10:42 AM, Forrest Chisman wrote:


Thanks for the explanation. I find it VERY useful. It's a very interesting
model. I'm not surprised that your students are motivated for college,
because they've signed up for a college prep track! What worries me are the
limited aspirations of many lower level ESL students who may have college

I understand now why you don't have the resources to operate a more
comprehensive program. I've heard an increasing number of stories about
areas were the LEA runs the federal/state adult education ESL grant program
and has asked the local college to take it over (because the LEA has
concluded it's an "adult" program). Have there been any rumblings of that in
your area?

Best of luck in your good work.


From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov [mailto:assessment-bounces at nifl.gov] On
Behalf Of Hinkle, Robert
Sent: Friday, February 08, 2008 9:42 AM
To: The Assessment Discussion List; The Assessment Discussion List
Subject: [Assessment 1174] Re: (no subject)

I believe we do have a hard time getting enough students fed into our
program and with the appropriate background to succeed if they do come to
us. It is a real problem. There are some workplace ESL programs which are
run through our Corporate and Continuing Education Office, but those
students rarely, if ever, come to us. And they serve the employees of
specific companies as opposed to the community at large.

Our ESL program is within an academic department in the college
(Communication and Languages) and so is run like every other. ESL students
pay the same tuition and fees as all other students at the college. We do
not receive special government funding beyond what the state and counties
provide for the college as a whole as a part of our yearly budget.

Finances are probably a big reason why we are getting fewer students at the
low levels. Community programs are free or low cost; although in the scheme
of higher education, the community college is less expensive, it may still
be out of reach of many students.

In terms of having a more comprehensive program, we are limited by a small
staff, and the unlikelihood of being able to expand given college budgeting
restraints. In addition, our three full-time faculty members (including
myself) not only teach 15 credit hours per semester but also do the
administrative work required. We do advising, scheduling, and the many other
tasks associate with keeping the program afloat. The only "official"
administrative support for the program is through the 3 hours of overload I
receive to serve as Adjunct Coordinator.

The belief that they can attend college does not seem to be a problem with
our population although I can certainly see that it could be. A growing
problem for us (and many around the country) is the disconnect between high
schools and colleges in terms of student preparation. Either the high
schools do not think the students are college-bound and so don't bother to
give them a college-prep course of study, or there is simply a growing gap
between the expectations of each. Additionally, students seem to think that
a high school diploma equates to college readiness.

We do our best to advise students, but we don't always have enough time -
and as professors primarily - may not know ourselves what all of the options
for students are.



From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov on behalf of Forrest Chisman
Sent: Thu 2/7/2008 10:38 PM
To: 'The Assessment Discussion List'
Subject: [Assessment 1172] Re: (no subject)

Dear Kevin,

Many thanks for providing all of us with a profile of your program. Seeing
the variety of college program goals and designs is extremely valuable in
stimulating ideas about how to do a better job in delivering ESL.

Personally, I think that it is perfectly valid for colleges to elect to
offer solely pre-academic ESL at the non-credit level. But it does prompt
the concern about whether other programs in the college's service area are
providing non-academic ESL to large enough numbers of students and at a high
enough quality to "feed" the college program - as well as how well their
efforts articulate with yours. I wonder whether this troubles you, and if so
whether/how you have addressed the issue. Frankly, I think one reason why
many colleges offer comprehensive ESL programs is that they would prefer to
"make" pre-academic students themselves, rather than rely on others to do
it. Another reason, of course, if that they may not be eligible for
federal/state grant money unless they offer comprehensive programs. Does
your college receive these funds to support its pre-academic program? If
not, how is it supported financially?

I heartily agree that helping students set realistic goals and understand
their options is essential. I believe, however, that encouraging students to
expand their goals as they succeed is also essential. For example, many
immigrants come from countries where going to college is the privilege of
very few, and thus may consider that an unrealistic goal unless they are
encouraged to take the steps necessary (often one step at a time). The
problem seems to be that it is hard for most programs to find the resources
to provide very much guidance of any of these kinds to most students. I
wonder if anyone has any solutions to THAT issue.

In any event, many thanks for fleshing out an interesting model.


From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov [mailto:assessment-bounces at nifl.gov] On
Behalf Of Hinkle, Robert
Sent: Wednesday, February 06, 2008 9:19 PM
To: assessment at nifl.gov
Subject: [Assessment 1148] (no subject)

Hi All,

I have been reading most of the discussion comments and wanted to address a
few issues. First, however, I'll give a summary of our program.

I teach ESL at Raritan Valley Community College in New Jersey. Our program
serves approximately 350 students from diverse language backgrounds. Our
program offers two pre-academic levels of all skills ESL instruction (a six
hour per week non-credit class). In addition, we have 5 levels of academic
ESL preparation divided into three courses - Reading/Writing, Grammar, and
Speaking/Listening). Our highest level Reading/Writing course gives
successful students 6 elective credits that count towards RVCC graduation,
but those credits do not transfer. Our semesters are 15 weeks. If a student
misses 20% of any class, the instructor may withdraw that student (they are
not, however, obliged to withdraw these students). At the moment, the late
enrollment policy is that students may register for a course prior to the
second week of class but not thereafter. Research, of course, indicates that
students who begin a class late have a much higher rate of failure than
those who begin on time

In our program, we have three full-time faculty and approximately 16-18

We have focused our program on academic prep ESL because we are a small
program with limited resources, and we have a very difficult time finding
qualified adjuncts. Also, a significant majority of our students have
signalled their intention to obtain a college degree. Moreover, there are
community programs that offer basic English skills although there is often a
long waiting list to obtain the services. In other issues, we use the
Accuplacer ESL test for placement and have in-house standardized tests at
the end of each level of grammar and reading/writing

Within our classes, highly educated non-native speakers usually progress
much more quickly. One of the most challenging groups is students who
graduated from local high schools but still have inadequate English skills -
and not infrequently, weak academic skills in general. One of the strategies
that I would personally wish for is real communication between K-12 and
community colleges so that students get the language skills they need before
they enter college. I understand that there is great pressure to move
students out of ESL in many school districts, but ultimately, it does a huge
disservice both financially and in terms of motivation to students whose
skills remain more BICS than CALP.

I agree with those who suggest that first language literacy issues should be
addressed before students enter ESL. However, it becomes complicated to find
funding and support for such efforts. In my experience, students with low
level literacy skills become frustrated and are not ultimately successful -
probably by any definition. I am uncomfortable with the idea that they are
spending hard-earned money when the chances for success in ESL are minimal.
We advise students that the program is academically-oriented; often they
have little understanding of what that means.

I do not agree with the suggestion that the bar be lowered so that students
with low-intermediate skills be allowed in credit classes (at least at my
college). Historically, other faculty have little experience handling
language issues and are very unhappy when students cannot read, write and
converse at an appropriate level of English. They end up feeling helpless.
Students may pass classes; however, I suspect that instructors do not want
to deal with the challenges and so turn a blind eye and let them through.
Recently, there has been a problem in the nursing department with non-native
English speaking students not passing board exams because they enter the
college from other programs and circumvent ESL with us. They have trouble
reading and answering questions on the exam. This is a significant problem
because nursing programs are judged in terms of the success of their
students on these standardized exams.

I think the measure of success should be based on a realistic assessment of
student goals combined with a real-life discussion of the possibilities and
limitations. Ideally, students would have incremental goals so that success
could build. If the goals for students with low literacy levels are not
carefully discussed and planned, then they will likely encounter more
failure than success because their expectaions will be unrealistic. The more
we have the opportunity to talk to students, the more likely it is that they
can develop short-term goals that are within their reach. Unfortunately, we
have no control over the myriad of complications that accrue in their every
day lives.

Apologies for the length.

Kevin Hinkle, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of ESL/Adjunct Coordinator


National Institute for Literacy

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JoAnn (Jodi) Crandall

Professor and Director

Language, Literacy and Culture Ph.D. Program

Director, Peace Corps Master's Intl Program in ESOL/Bilingual Education

University of Maryland Baltimore County

1000 Hilltop Circle

Baltimore, MD 21250

tel: 410-455-2313

fax: 410-455-8947

eml: crandall at umbc.edu

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Message: 2
Date: Fri, 8 Feb 2008 22:35:19 -0500
From: "Forrest Chisman" <forrest at crosslink.net>
Subject: [Assessment 1227] Re: Multiple Intelligences and
Differentiated Instruction--registration opens
To: "'The Assessment Discussion List'" <assessment at nifl.gov>
Message-ID: <001f01c86acc$d0a4e800$71eeb800$@net>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"


Good for you. You?ve obviously had (and are having) a remarkable career.
This can only enhance it.


From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov [mailto:assessment-bounces at nifl.gov] On
Behalf Of Bonnie Odiorne
Sent: Friday, February 08, 2008 7:33 PM
To: The Assessment Discussion List
Subject: [Assessment 1219] Re: Multiple Intelligences and Differentiated
Instruction--registration opens

I am going to try the course; I just registered. As I've been following the
discussion with interest, I've been very intrigued by the issue of multiple
ihntelligences as they impact college transition, differentiated classrooms
(from the point of view of skills levels as well as intrinsic motivation)
and the increasing number of "developmental" students, regardless of their
educational backgrounds. If colleges and universities could get out of the
"developmental" model to a curriculum revision model that enhances
instructional changes (faculty are now talking about Bloom's taxonomy as a
starting point for curriculum revision), including differentiated
instruction... I do this wearing several hats: while I was in adult
education previously, in various ABE/ESOL programs, including tutor training
(so the comments about CBOs and standards for volunteers is a very difficult
topic), family, workplace, employability with technological enhancement
literacy programs ccombining ABE and ESOL students, I am now teaching French
(?!; it used to be ESOL but the university did away with its formalized
program) developmental English composition, freshman college success
seminars, working with a summer "bridge" program for at risk students, and I
am also director of the university writing center. Writing across the
curriculum, writing to learn, and multiple intelligences seemed to me to be
answers to the differentiated classroom. I also identify with funding: my
jobs are both part-time... and assesment (I work with the learning center to
administer Accuplacer). We also have a lot of developmental problems with
online students so I do writing center advising electronically....
Coincidentally, I'd been invited to facilitate an Oakland Unified Schools
District ESOL teachers' retreat with a mindfulness activity (I chose walking
the labyrinth) in relation to multiple intelligences, but I couldn't get the
life scan fingerprinting done in time, alas. I may have some role in this
program but I'm not quite sure what. In any event, when things come together
like this, I tend to listen up, so thought I needed to take advantage of
the opportunity to take the course.

Cheers, all you dedicated practitioners out there.

Bonnie Odiorne, Ph.D. Post University Waterbury CT

----- Original Message ----
From: Forrest Chisman <forrest at crosslink.net>
To: The Assessment Discussion List <assessment at nifl.gov>
Sent: Friday, February 8, 2008 1:38:48 PM
Subject: [Assessment 1194] Re: Multiple Intelligences and Differentiated
Instruction--registration opens

Very interesting. Anyone going to try it?


From: assessment-bounces at nifl.gov [mailto:assessment-bounces at nifl.gov] On
Behalf Of Kaye Beall
Sent: Thursday, February 07, 2008 3:41 PM
To: assessment at nifl.gov
Subject: [Assessment 1181] Multiple Intelligences and Differentiated
Instruction--registration opens

World Education is pleased to offer Multiple Intelligences and
Differentiated Instruction as an online training.

The course syllabus and registration details are attached. Contact Kaye
Beall at kaye_beall at worlded.org with questions.


Adult Multiple Intelligences and Differentiated Instruction

Course Dates: March 12?May 13, 2008; Online chats during Lessons 3, 4, and 5

Course Description

Research conducted by the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning
and Literacy shows that instructional practices inspired by Multiple
Intelligences (MI) theory resulted in high levels of authentic instruction
and student engagement.

Integrate your understanding of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory with the
power of differentiated instruction in this facilitated, eight-session
course. You?ll learn how to apply MI theory and differentiate instruction
for all levels of adult basic education and English for speakers of other
languages. The facilitator will guide you as you develop your own MI-based


Upon completion of this course you will be able to:

*Apply the theory of multiple intelligences (MI) to design learning
activities that match your learning objectives

*Use varying methods of differentiated instruction (DI) that address the
different skills and interests of your learners

*Apply knowledge of your own MI profile to your classroom teaching

*Produce and reflect on a lesson or unit using both MI and DI

Required Text:

Viens, Julie and Silja Kallenbach. Multiple Intelligences and Adult
Literacy: A Sourcebook for Practitioners. (New York: Teachers College Press,
2004. Copies of the required textbook can be obtained from the publisher,
Teachers College Press (TCP), the publisher at
http://store.tcpress.com/0807743461.shtml. The cost is $27.95 per copy.

Course Format and Schedule: facilitated, online

During this eight-week course, you will engage in self-paced activities and
readings, as well as asynchronous discussions with the facilitators and
course participants. Three synchronous chats will be scheduled during
Lessons 3, 4, and 5.

Syllabus: See attached PDF?AMI Course Details.

Course Facilitator: Wendy Qui?ones

Estimated Completion Time: 40 hours

Registration: Complete and return the attached registration form-[PDF].
Payment must be received prior to enrollment. Registration is limited to 20

Cancellation policy: World Education reserves the right to cancel the course
if the minimum number of registrants is not met by March 4, 2008.

Kaye Beall

Project Director

World Education

6760 West Street

Linn Grove, IN 46711


kaye_beall at worlded.org

www.worlded.org <http://www.worlded.org/>

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