Literacy Information and Communication System

Note: RR = "Research-related," designating a link to a reference or to more information about relevant papers, reports, or studies.

In the following list of assessment tasks quoted from the NRP report,RR letters between slashes should be read as sounds, not letters. For example, /b/ is read as the first sound in "bob" as opposed to b without the slashes, which would normally be read as the name of the letter, "bee."

Phonemic Awareness assessment tasks from the NRP:

  • Phoneme isolation, which requires recognizing individual sounds in words; for example, "Tell me the first sound in paste." (/p/)
  • Phoneme identity, which requires recognizing the common sound in different words; for example, "Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy, and bell." (/b/)
  • Phoneme categorization, which requires recognizing the word with the odd sound in a sequence of three or four words; for example, "Which word does not belong? bus, bun, rug." (rug)
  • Phoneme blending, which requires listening to a sequence of separately spoken sounds and combining them to form a recognizable word; for example, "What word is /s/ /k/ /u/ /l/?" (school)
  • Phoneme segmentation, which requires breaking a word into its sounds by tapping out or counting the sounds or by pronouncing and positioning a marker for each sound; for example, "How many phonemes are there in ship?" (three: /sh/ /i/ /p/)
  • Phoneme deletion, which requires recognizing what word remains when a specified phoneme is removed; for example, "What is smile without the /s/?" (mile).
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