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SIGNAL WORDS
*
1. Continuation Signals (Warning-there are more ideas to come.)
 
and
again
a final reason
last of all
moreover
other
too
also
and finally
furthermore
likewise
next
secondly
with
another
first of all
in addition
more
one reason
similarly
2. Change-of-Direction Signals (Watch out-we're doubling back.)
 
although
despite
however
in spite of
the opposite
rather
while
but
different from
in contrast
nevertheless
on the contrary
still
though
conversely
even though
instead of
otherwise
on the other hand
yet
3. Sequence Signals (There is an order to these ideas.)
 
first, second, third
in the first place
then
before
after
into (far into the night)
last
since
o'clock
later
A, B, C
for one thing
next
now
while
until
during
always
on time
earlier
 
4. Time Signals (When is it happening?)
 
when
lately
at the same time
once
immediately
already
final
during
now
little by little
after awhile
5. Illustration Signals (Here's what that principle means in reality.)
 
for example
for instance
such as
in the same way as
specifically
to illustrate
much like
similar to
 
6. Emphasis Signals (This is important.)
 
a major development
a significant factor
a primary concern
a key feature
a major event
a vital force
a central issue
a distinctive quality
above all
by the way
especially important
especially relevant
especially valuable
important to note
it all boils down to
most of all
most noteworthy
more than anything else
of course
pay particular attention to
remember that
should be noted
the most substantial issue
the main value
the basic concept
the crux of the matter
the chief outcome
the principal item
 
7. Cause, Condition, or Result Signals (Condition or modification is coming up.)
 
because
for
while
that
as
so that
yet
resulting from
if
from
then
until
whether
therefore
thus
consequently
of
so
but
since
in order that
unless
due to
without
8. Spatial Signals (This answers the "where" question.)
 
between
here
right
near
middle
east
south
under
across
toward
below
outside
over
in
next to
on
there
these
this
west
about
around
away
into
beyond
opposite
inside
out
adjacent
by
left
close to
side
beside
north
over
in front of
behind
above
upon
alongside
far
near
9. Comparison-Contrast Signals (We will now compare idea A with idea B.)
 
and
too
either
more than
even
much as
but
yet
opposite
though
or
best
less
same
then
like
different from
however
rather
also
most
less than
better
half
analogous to
still
although
while
10. Conclusion Signals (This ends the discussion and may have special importance.)
 
as a result
from this we see
hence
consequently
in conclusion
last of all
finally
in summary
therefore
11. Fuzz Signals (Idea is not exact, or author is not positive and wishes to qualify a statement.)
 
almost
maybe
except
nearly
seems like
sort of
if
could
should
might
was reported
probably
looks like
some
alleged
reputed
purported
12. Nonword Emphasis Signals
 
exclamation point (!)
underline
italics
bold type
subheads, like The Conclusion
     indentation of paragraph
graphic illustrations
numbered points (1, 2, 3)
very short sentence: Stop war.
"quotation marks"
 

 

* Fry, E. B., Kress, J. E., & Fountoukidis, D.L. (1993). The reading teacher's book of lists, 3rd edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, pp.185-187. By permission.   © 1993 by Prentice Hall.

 

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